JavaScript cooperative async processing



4 minute read

As someone who is somewhat familiar with JavaScript I will try to explain how it's possible to execute expensive tasks on a "single-threaded" runtime. As you might have already guessed this has pros and cons, and it's no silver bullet. I refer to it as "cooperative processing", but it's also known as "cooperative multitasking". (This term is probably something most have heard from in context of operating systems.)

I acknowledge that it's possible to implement this via async* Generators, but we won't be using them since they require Promise instances which can be relatively expensive.

The following examples are designed to be used within browsers, but can also be used with Node.js, Deno or any other ES5 compatible runtime with Timers.

Given an example task to iterate through a large list of entries and apply some processing to them, some might implement this:

const entries = Array(10e8)
let result = 0

for (const entry of entries) {
    result += entry

Don't get me wrong, there is nothing wrong with this, if it's not blocking some other higher priority task. Which is nearly always the case if this or something similar is being run on the (browser) main thread. To work around this, I would prefer the following implementation:

const entries = Array(10e8)

function processEntries(
    entries: number[],
    onComplete: (sum: number) => void
): void {
    const length = entries.length
    let offset = 0
    let result = 0

    function _process(): void {
        // process up to fifty entries at once
        const limit = Math.min(offset + 50, length)

        for (let index = offset; index < limit; index++) {
            result += entries[index]

        if (limit === length) {
            // we've reached the end
        } else {
            // advance offset by batch size
            offset += 50
            // 24ms since we're targeting 60 FPS
            // 16ms * 1.5 (scripting multiplier) = 24ms
            setTimeout(_process, 24)


The second example will be slower overall, but since execution is "paused" after fifty entries the main thread can process user input or execute other tasks. Some might be thinking: "Why would I write more code and have it execute slower?" That's a good question!

Let me try to explain it by using a relatively modest monitoring dashboard as an example. Given that example let's say there are fourteen different widgets that need to be updated every five seconds with data from the last thirty minutes. A given data point represents one second, which means there are 14 widgets * (30 minutes * 60 seconds) entries which need to be processed. This will yield up to 25200 entries, which is a relatively modest number for a modern PC, but updating all fourteen widgets in one task will lead to unresponsiveness for a small amount of time which isn't a great user experience.

A possible solution would be, to process the data per widget per time budget (which was 24ms in the previous example). You are correct in thinking that this might lead to visual differences, but these should only be minor and be resolved within the next one to three seconds (depending on the users PC). Overall this should be a more responsive user experience than updating them all at once. But since every application is at least slightly different and might have different goals this isn't necessary.

The given example does not reflect most real tasks, but I hope that it was understandable. In most real applications these processing times simply add up by abstraction or other tasks running "simultaneously". Some applications can use Web Workers or WebAssembly to process tasks outside the main thread, but this creates other hurdles which may not be worth for some.

All right, that's all. If I made a mistake or something isn't clear, try contacting me @free_some_mem.